Saturday, February 26, 2011

Malaria

Malaria is a disease affecting humans, birds, monkeys and other primates, reptiles and rodents, which is caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and easily recognizable from feverish symptoms (hot and cold chills) and prolonged fever. Malaria is a disease affecting humans, birds, monkeys and other primates, reptiles and rodents, which is caused by infection with protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and easily recognizable from feverish symptoms (hot and cold chills) and prolonged fever.

Malaria, With the advent of control programs based on the use of residual insecticides, the spread of malaria have been able to overcome rapidly.

Since 1950, malaria was successfully eradicated in most of Continental Europe and in regions like Central America and South America. However, this disease remains a major problem in some parts of the continent of Africa and Southeast Asia. About 100 million cases of malaria occur each year and about 1 percent of them fatal. Like most other tropical diseases, malaria is the leading cause of death in developing countries.

Rapid population growth, migration, poor sanitation, as well as areas that are too dense, to help facilitate the spread of the disease. The opening of new lands and displacement of people from villages to cities (urbanization) has allowed the contact between mosquitoes with humans who lived in the area.

Malaria disease that occurs in humans
Malaria has 4 types, and each caused by different parasite species. Symptoms of each type is usually a fever, cold chills and hot sweats. In some cases that is not accompanied by treatment, these symptoms reappear periodically. The lightest type of malaria is malaria tertiana caused by Plasmodium vivax, with symptoms of fever may occur once every two days after the first symptoms occur (may happen for 2 weeks after infection).

Jungle fever (jungle fever), malaria aestivo-autumnal or also known as tropical malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum is the cause of most deaths from malaria. These organisms often form in the way of blood to the brain, causing coma, delirium, and death. Malaria caused by Plasmodium kuartana malariae, has an incubation period longer than tertiana malaria or tropical diseases, the first symptoms usually do not appear until 18 to 40 days after infection. The symptoms are then likely to recur every 3 days. Type the four and is the most rare type of malaria was found, caused by Plasmodium ovale tertiana similar to malaria.

In the incubation period of malaria, protozoa grow in liver cells; a few days before the first symptoms occur, these organisms invade and destroy red blood cells in line with their development, thus causing the fever.

Handling
Since 1638 malaria has been treated with sap from the bark of cinchona tree, better known by the name of quinine, which is actually toxic and suppress the growth of protozoa in tissue blood. In 1930, the German drugs expert had found Atabrine (quinacrine hydrocloride) which is then more effective than quinine and toxic levels are lower. Since the end of the second world war, chloroquine is considered better able to ward off and cure fever jungle in total, are also more effective in suppressing the types of malaria compared with Atabrine or quinine. The drug also contains low levels of toxins than most other drugs earlier and proved to be effective without the need to be used continuously.

However, recently strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the organism which causes tropical malaria showed a resistance to chloroquine and other synthetic anti-malarial drugs. Strains of this type are found mainly in Vietnam, and also in the peninsula Malaysia, Africa and South America. Quinine is also becoming less effective against strains of plasmodium falciparum.

Along with the emergence of parasite strains resistant to these drugs, the fact that some species carrying mosquitoes (Anopheles) has a resistance to insecticides such as DDT has resulted in an increasing number of cases of malaria in some tropical countries. As a result, malaria cases also increase in tourists from America and Western Europe who came to Asia and Central America and also among the refugees from the area. The tourists who come to a place plagued by malaria disease being spread, can be given anti-malarial drugs such as prophylactic (preventive medicine).

Malaria prevention medicines are often still used up until a few weeks after returning from travel. Mefloquine has been proven effective against strains of malaria resistant to chloroquine, as well as treatment or prevention. But the drug is currently being investigated whether it can cause adverse side effects. A combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine are used for prevention in the areas that have malaria resistant to chloroquine. While proguanil is used only as a precaution.

Currently, experts are still trying to find a vaccine for malaria. Several vaccines are now considered qualified to clinically tested safety and effectiveness of using volunteers, while other experts are trying to find a vaccine for general use. Investigation is underway to find a number of drugs with basic materials artemisin, used by expert Chinese medicine to cure fever. Material is effective against Plasmodium falciparum but is still very difficult to propagate in number.

0 comments:

Post a Comment