Monday, August 22, 2011

Influenza Vaccination

Influenza Vaccination, The influenza vaccine is made each year based on WHO recommendations on the strains expected to be dominant in the coming winter hemisphere is concerned, this estimate is based global influenza surveillance followed by more than 100 laboratories around the world.

Influenza Vaccination, For the northern hemisphere, these recommendations are issued each February in anticipation of the winter end of the year. At present, since the last few years, the WHO recommends two strains of influenza virus subtype A (H1N1) and A (H3N2) and one strain of type B to be made into vaccines. Virus grown in chicken eggs, therefore it is not recommended for people with egg allergies. Influenza vaccine in the form of vaccines mati.1, 6

Configuring the vaccine antigen change every year, the vaccine is based on the prevalent strains (isolated in the previous year). There are several kinds of influenza vaccines:

1.Whole virion vaccine (from the intact virus): using whole virus particles

and have good immunogenicity, but more side effects.

2.Split virus vaccine (still contain RNA and protein M): good immunogenicity and fewer adverse effects.

3.Virus subunit vaccine (only HA and NA): few side effects, less immunogenic.

Marketed in Indonesia has been split virus vaccine because of high immunogenicity and side effects rendah.6, 10

This type of virus used in the world that A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and type B, the composition of the vaccine tailored to the characteristics of the strains that often occur, according to the report data collected by WHO.

Vaccine dose for adults is given 0.5 ml intra-muscular in the deltoid region. Because of the potential impact of influenza vaccine to health is high enough, the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and ACIP (Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices) recommends the use of influenza vaccine, especially pada11:

- Age above 65 years
- Patients with chronic illness in nursing homes or parlors with

chronic disease conditions.
- Children and adults with cardiovascular disorders or lung.
- Adults who require regular treatment or hospitalization due to

chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, kidney disorders, blood disorders
(Hemoglobinopathy), received immunosuppressant therapy, or HIV.
- Children and adolescents receiving long-term aspirin therapy and
have a risk of the syndrome.
- Pregnant women in second and third trimester influenza season.

Vaccination can reduce the morbidity of 35-60% of elderly who should enter the hospital and lower mortality by 35-80% of patients who were treated at home sakit.1, 6

Wilde JA et al, observed in 264 healthcare workers healthy people who get influenza vaccination during the winter of 92-93 years to 94-95. Obtained 88% vaccine efficacy for influenza A and influenza B 89%, was the cumulative number of fever accompanied by respiratory tract infection 28.7% in the vaccinated group, compared to 40.6% control group. Declining attendance figures, in the vaccination of 9.9% compared to the control group 21.1%. Concluded that influenza vaccine was having a fairly high effectiveness, thus supporting the data to be vaccinated berkala.11

Prevention of morbidity 12:
- Community workers (firefighters, police)
- People who are much exposed to influenza virus (school students, boarders, home care, including medical personnel)
- People who travel (tourists)
- Anyone who wants to reduce the risk of getting influenza.

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